It is connected with that the same gene has impact on formation not of one, but two and more signs. Change of a gene or set of genes is the cornerstone of all types of hereditary variability. Therefore, making selection on one, necessary sign, it is necessary to consider possibility of emergence in posterity of others, sometimes undesirable signs, it is correlative with it connected.
POPULATION WAVES (life wave) - periodic or acyclic fluctuations of number of types of all live organisms, as a rule, works selectively, individuals thanks to what the rare genotype can become usual incidentally destroy, and E.O is picked up.
In a group of outstanding biologists of the XVIII century of a star of the first magnitude – Zh. Byuffon (1707 - 178 and K. Linney (1707 – 17 V the creativity they embody different research traditions which for them were also various vital reference points. Byuffon in 36-volume one of the first in the developed form stated to "Natural history" the concept of a transformizm (limited variability of types and an origin of species within rather narrow divisions (from one uniform under the influence of Wednesday); he guessed a role of artificial selection as Ge. St Hilaire's predecessor formulated idea of unity of wildlife and unity of the plan of a structure of living beings (on the basis of representation about biological atomism.
Long ago it was noticed that individuals of this breed, a grade or a look under the influence of certain reasons change in one direction. As the reason direct influence of factors of environment serves. This variability does not mention a hereditary basis of an organism, i.e. its genotype. But there is still a hereditary variability connected with change of genes or the whole chromosomes and their sites. This property is hereditary and is transferred among generations. Yim Darwin attached especially great value since this form of variability gives material for artificial and natural selection.
HEREDITY, property of organisms to repeat among generations similar types of an exchange in-in and the individual. developments in general. It is provided with self-reproduction of material units of N. - the genes localized in. structures of a kernel of a cage (chromosomes) and cytoplasms. Together with N.'s variability provides a pstoyanstvo and variety of forms of life and is the cornerstone of evolution of wildlife.
Disclosure of molecular bases of heredity was the basic in this revolution. It appeared that rather simple molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bear record of genetic information in the structure. These opening created a uniform platform of geneticists, physicists and chemists in the analysis of problems of heredity. It appeared that genetic information works in a cage by the principles of the operating systems that entered into genetics in many cases language and logic of cybernetics.
MUTATIONS (from armor. mutatio - change, changes, the changes of inheritances arising naturally or caused artificially. properties of an organism as a result of reorganizations and violations in. organism material - chromosomes and genes. M - a basis of inheritances. variability in wildlife.
Interaction of molecules of DNA, proteins and RNA is the cornerstone of cell activity and its reproduction. As the heredity phenomenon, in a general sense this concept, is reproduction on generations of similar type of a metabolism, it is obvious that the general substratum of heredity is the cage in general.
ISOLATION (from fr. isolation - office, dissociation, emergence of barriers (rubbed. -.,. , behavior.,. -.,. ), the organisms interfering free crossing; one of the reasons of dissociation and deepening of distinctions between interconnected forms and formations of new types.
After these events connected with disclosure of the nature of a genetic code and genetic mechanisms in synthesis of proteins for the first time it was succeeded to give the full chemical analysis and formulas of a structure of a molecule of transport RNA. All these opening, including the remarkable fact that synthesis of molecules of DNA goes under the coordinating influence of a priming (matrix DNA), shows, what serious step was taken by genetic biochemistry to creation of a prototype live.
FITNESS (adaptation, expediency) is a lot of it (a structure of a tel, coloring, behavior, care of posterity, etc.), what it is practically not possibly to study, to Darwin this problem solved from a kreatsnizm position, initially and is invariable.